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Ceratopsians are herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs of which several species can be found on Isla Sorna. They are commonly known as "horned dinosaurs", however Archaeoceratops and Leptoceratops lack horns. Ceratopsians are noteable for a bony shelf, or frill, projecting from the back of their skulls. In the likes of Archaeoceratops and Leptoceratops, the frills house powerful jaw muscles, however in the larger species including Triceratops, Styracosaurus, Avaceratops and Centrosaurus, they are used for show and intimidation. The Triceratops' frill is the most solid, and protects the animal's neck from predator attacks, particularly Tyrannosaur bites.

Most of the ceratopsians are quadrapedal, however Leptoceratops and Archaeoceratops are semi-bipedal - they tend to forage or rest on all fours, but can rear up onto their hind legs to browse higher or to run away from danger at a steady pace. Ceratopsians are mainly sociable animals, living in herds to help keep an eye out and protect themselves from predators. While the small species will flee at the first sign of danger, the larger horned species will not hesitate to defend themselves. Herds of Trikes, Centros and Styracs may develop a defensive ring around their more vulnerable young, facing predators with their heads lowered and displaying their sharp horns and frills. Even the largest Tyrannosaurs will think twice about attacking a full grown bull Triceratops.

Archaeoceratops oshimai Edit

Length: 4 ft (1.2 m)
Height: 1.3 ft (0.4 m)
Weight: 90 lb (40.8 kg)


A lightly-built bipedal ceratopsian somewhat resembling Leptoceratops gracilis, Archaeoceratops is by far the smallest representative of Ceratopsia on the island. This ceratopsian lacks horns and only a small frill projects from the back of its head. They populate the highest peaks of the San Fernando mountain range where they live in small groups- several members of the group will keep an eye out for danger while the others feed on small shrubs and other low-growing vegetation. A few representatives are found in the higher areas of the southern highlands.

rarely leave their rocky territories, but once in a while they will travel down into the jungles or even to the game trail for whatever reason. They compete like mountain goats on the cliff faces, pushing each other around with their reinforced heads, trying to knock one another off a cliff face. Should they fall, their amazing balance will, like a cat, usually allow them to fall on their feet. When resting, they switch to all four legs, especially when foraging through the rocks and highland shrubs. They are not above eating carrion, however, although they would never actually hunt for food. Another reason for staying in the highlands is that these small herbivores love to gnaw on rocks to devour certain minerals which are only present in higher regions. A distinct ridge of porcupine-like quills lines their tails- more pronounced in males- which is used mostly for display to attract females. Their cries sound similar to the growling of an angry cat.


Coloration and Sexual Differences Edit

Males are a bright, vivid green with indistinct cornflower splotches along its sides, and a vibrant pinkish-red head. Females are a duller green with navy blue blotchings and a brown head. Male juveniles are a bright, vivid green all over their bodies, while juvenile females are brown scales with navy-blue blotches.


Avaceratops lammersorum Edit

Length: 6.6 ft (2 m)
Height: 3 ft (0.9 m)
Weight: 400 lb (181.4 kg)

These ceratopsians are noteworthy for being one of the few dedicated swamp-living animals, preferring boggy, swampy terrain where few other dinosaurs will venture. They are rarely found outside the East Delta, only occassionally do a few individuals venture out onto the Game Trail. The third smallest ceratopsian on the island, does indeed have horns - one on the snout and two smaller ones above the eyes - however the animal prefers to flee from danger, rather than attempting to fight back (unless cornered). Swamp vegetation, including fallen twigs from the few trees that dot its habitat, make up the Avaceratops' diet. Quite uncommonly for a ceratopsian, prefers a solitary lifestyle, only congregating during the breeding season.

Coloration and Sexual Differences Edit

Both sexes are a dull, brownish green with light blue striping, which becomes wide alternating bands on the tail. Juveniles are the same.


Centrosaurus apertus Edit

Length: 18 ft (5.5 m)
Height: 6 ft (1.8 m)
Weight: 2 tons


Centrosaurus can be recognized for its large, single horn on its snout (which varies in curvature between individuals) and two much smaller horns over its eyes. Centros are among the most social of ceratopsians, living in massive herds led by an alpha male and/or female. Migrations of Centros usually involve mass river crossings, where several individuals may fall prey to gathering Deinosuchus. Males engage in pushing contests during the rutting season as tests of strength, the winner gaining leadership of the herd and the right to mate with the breeding females. Centros are also known for their distinct call, sounding somewhat like a foghorn. Their defense strategy differs somewhat from that of Triceratops horridus - they tend to throw their heads directly backwards and drive their horns straight up into the belly of their attackers - similarly to their close relative Styracosaurus albertensis. The Centros' preferred habitat is wide open plains, where they feed on a wide variety of vegetation.

Coloration and Sexual Differences Edit

Males are a uniform dusty yellow. Males flash colours into its frill in the form of swirling patterns of black, red, and blue - varying between individuals - to impress females and to warn off other challenging males, however they may also be used as a defensive strategy to confuse attacking predators before charging. Females are a uniform dusty yellow, they are capable of flashing colours into their frills in the form of muted orange patches. This ability is used to tell males that they are susceptible for mating. The juveniles of both sexes have a more vibrant orange colouring.


Leptoceratops gracilis Edit

Length: 6.6 ft (2 m)
Height: 2.5 ft (0.8 m)
Weight: 150 lb (68 kg)
Lepto

Leptoceratops, image done by T-PEKC




This small, stout, hornless ceratopsian has a slender body, short forelimbs, a short deep tail, and a small bony shelf projecting from the back of the head, which serves as the frill. The Lepto is capable of walking on its hindlimbs as well as all fours, although it walks on all fours for a majority of the time. The Leptoceratops' preferred habitat is heavily-forested terrain, which gives them extra cover from predators. They feed on low-growing plants and live in loose feeding groups that are not true “herd” structures, as they will readily separate when food supplies are low. Leptos are known for their distinctive meowing calls, which are interspersed with indistinct grumbles, grunts, and snorts. They are normally docile, however they are quite brave for their size and will attempt to defend themselves against small carnivores, by snorting, stomping their feet, and using their heads as a battering ram.


Coloration and Sexual differences Edit

Males are a pale yellow colour, with bright yellow backs and brown spotting on their flanks. Females and juveniles have pale yellow bodies.

Styracosaurus abertensis Edit

Length: 18 ft (5.5 m)
Height: 6 ft (1.8 m)
Weight: 2 tons

With their spike-studded frills, the Styracosaurus is one of the most recognizeable ceratopsians on the island. There are six long horns on the Styrac's frill, and a series of smaller knobs, as well as a large, straight horn on its snout which can reach up to a metre long. Like its close relative Centrosaurus, Styracs live in large herds and graze on a wide variety of low-growing vegetation, particularly favouring flowering plants. Their preferred habitat is tree-dotted grasslands, however a particular subspecies, the Imperial, can be found in mountainous areas.

Like its much larger distant relative Triceratops, Styracosaurus has bad eyesight and thus, it can react aggressively if alarmed. The long spikes which protrude from its frill not only protects the neck, but also makes the animal appear bigger and more frightening. A styrac will sway its head side to side when trying to intimidate an enemy, and if the enemy is not deterred, the Styrac will charge without warning, aiming its long nasal horn at the attacker.


Coloration and Sexual differences Edit

Males have reddish-purple backs with pale lavender underbellies. small rosettes of dark purple spots dot the animal’s sides. Females have purplish-pink backs with paler lavender undersides than the males, their darker purple markings form stripes rather than spots. The juveniles of both sexes have pinkish backs with very pale lavender sides and bellies, and no markings.


Triceratops horridus Edit

Length: 35 ft (10.7 m)
Height: 14 ft (4.3 m)
Weight: 6 tons
Trike

Triceratops, image done by T-PEKC



The largest, most recognizeable of the ceratopsians, is Triceratops. Much like rhinos, Trikes are nearsighted animals that rely more on hearing and smell to detect danger. These ceratopsians are highly aggressive - heightened by their poor vision - and will charge at anything that they may consider a threat, whether it is a predator or a harmless herbivore. This aggression increases particularly when they are guarding young. Despite their bulk Trikes can run surprisingly fast, throwing their weight into the aggressor and driving the double brow horns into the flesh. Their short frills are solid and bony, and provides some protection around the neck area. Both males and females fight one another to establish dominance, interlocking their horns and pushing in tests of strength.
Trikes are social animals, living in large herds. Like elephants, some males are solitary and only locate herds in the search of females when they want to mate. Trikes prefer habitats out in the open, where they feed on particularly tough, fibrous plant material.


Coloration and Sexual differences Edit

Males have green and brown mottled bodies with darker back striping. Females have brown mottling with lighter brown back striping. The juveniles of both sexes have brown and green mottled bodies.

Ceratopsian anomalies/ subspecies Edit

Styracosaurus Edit


Ash-morph: This variation of Styrac has a dark grey body with an ashy grey underbelly, and black splotches on the frill. Males can change their frill colours into a brilliant display of ambers and oranges, which is used to attract females, intimidate rivals and warn off attacking predators.

Imperial: This variation of possesses longer horns around its frill and has a slightly longer nasal horn, which can reach a length of up two meters (6.6 feet). In addition to having a longer horns, imperials also have longer legs to help them navigate the rockier terrain of the highlands in which most of them live. They generally live in the higher regions of Sorna, although they often venture down to the lower areas when food is scarce. Their frill horns are sometimes tipped with goldish colouring, hence the name. They are generally a dark grey with a pair of orange or yellow pentagons on the frill. Beagle is an example of an Imperial Styrac.

Triceratops Edit


Highland: Highland Triceratops live in the Southern Highlands, in small herds. They have larger, wider neck frills and shorter horns. All are a dark grey with black stripes, but males have red spots on their frills. They are less agressive then their lowland cousins. One example of this subspecies is Aldren.


Minority: A "minority" Trike is a variation of Triceratops that is always brown with indistinct purplish striping on the sides, and a wide patch of blue-green on their backs. This is a recessive trait, so it is very rare. The only example of a minority Trike is Fernbeak.